Escrevivendo e Photoandando por ali e por aqui

“O que a fotografia reproduz no infinito aconteceu apenas uma vez: ela repete mecanicamente o que não poderá nunca mais se repetir existencialmente”.

Roland Barthes

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«Ao lermos uma novela ou uma história imaginamos as cenas, a paisagem, os personagens, dando a estes uma voz, uma imagem física. Por isso às vezes a transposição para o cinema revela-se-nos uma desilusão. Quando leio o que a Maria do Mar me escreve(u) surge perante mim a sua imagem neste ou naquele momento da nossa vida, uma pessoa simples, encantadora, gentil e delicada.»

Victor Nogueira

terça-feira, 31 de agosto de 2010

Katyusha Russian Folksong


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RvBphil | 12 de janeiro de 2009
Montage dedicated to the brave soldiers of the red army set to the Russian folksong composed by Matvey Blanter
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apophis14189 | 8 de fevereiro de 2009
nenhuma descrição disponível
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Henri Cartier-Bresson: From a higher reality to a respect for reality



By Stuart Nolan and Barbara Slaughter
5 November 1999
Henri Cartier-Bresson is an outstanding representative of a generation of artists who transformed photography into a recognised art form.
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Last year, his ninetieth birthday was celebrated in Britain with a series of exhibitions and interviews, as well as a BBC documentary Pen Brush & Camera. The events concluded with the Tête-à-tête show at the Tate Gallery in Liverpool.
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Cartier-Bresson began his artistic life not as a photographer, but as a painter—a passion that stirred him from early childhood. He once wrote, “Painting has been my obsession from the time that my ‘mythical father', my father's brother, led me into his studio during the Christmas holidays in 1913, when I was five years old. There I lived in the atmosphere of painting; I inhaled the canvases.” At the age of 12 he was introduced to the feel of oil painting by the same uncle, a gifted painter who was killed during the First World War.
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After leaving school he entered the Paris studio of André Lhote, a lesser-known painter, whose ambition was to unify the Cubist's approach to reality with classical artistic forms. While painting, Cartier-Bresson read Dostoevsky, Schopenhauer, Rimbaud, Mallarmé, Freud, Proust, Joyce, Hegel and Marx. Lhote took his pupils to the Louvre to study classical artists and to galleries to study contemporary art. Cartier-Bresson's interest in modern art was combined with an admiration for the works of the Renaissance—of Paolo Uccello, Piero della Francesca, Masaccio and Jan van Eyck. He later said that, as far as art was concerned, Lhote “taught me to read and write. His treatises on landscape and the figure are fundamental books.... I saw him again shortly before his death [in 1962]. ‘Everything comes from your training as a painter,' he said of my photographs.”
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Cartier-Bresson began to feel uncomfortable with Lhote's “rule-laden” approach to art. But his rigorous theoretical training later enabled him to fearlessly confront and resolve problems of artistic form and composition, not in painting but in photography. Schools of photographic realism were forming all over Europe, with differing conceptions on how photography should develop. The cry had gone up “Crush tradition! Photograph things as they are!” At the centre of this revolt was the Surrealist movement, founded in 1924.
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Cartier-Bresson and the Surrealists
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In 1925, while still at Lhote's studio, Cartier-Bresson began attending gatherings of the Surrealists at the Café La Place Blanche. He met a number of the movement's leading figures. His closest friend was the young poet René Crevel, who later committed suicide. At the age of 17, Cartier-Bresson belonged to a different generation than the founding members of Surrealism. He didn't engage in the debates, but he listened and adopted conceptions that would shape his early artistic life. He said he had been “marked, not by Surrealist painting, but by the conceptions of [André] Breton, [which] satisfied me a great deal; the role of spontaneous expression and of intuition and, above all, the attitude to revolt ... in art but also in life.”
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The Surrealists' "destination-less walks of discovery" around the streets of Paris influenced him. Peter Galassi, in his book Henri Cartier-Bresson, The Early Work (Museum of Modern Art, New York), explains: “Alone, the Surrealist wanders the streets without destination but with a premeditated alertness for the unexpected detail that will release a marvellous and compelling reality just beneath the banal surface....
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“The Surrealists approached photography in the same way that Aragon and Breton ... approached the street: with a voracious appetite for the usual and unusual.... The Surrealists recognised in plain photographic fact an essential quality that had been excluded from prior theories of photographic realism. They saw that ordinary photographs, especially when uprooted from their practical functions, contain a wealth of unintended, unpredictable meanings.”
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Cartier-Bresson grew up artistically in this stormy political and cultural environment and was aware of these possibilities, but could not find a way of expressing this imaginatively in his paintings. Frustration with his experiments led him to destroy the majority of his early efforts. Those that survive are well executed, but do not have a recognisable artistic language of their own.
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In 1930 he left Paris for Africa and adventure. “I left Lhote's studio because I did not want to enter into that systematic spirit. I wanted to be myself,” he later wrote. “To paint and to change the world counted for more than everything in my life.” This connection between art and revolt against the bourgeois order was the critical element for him, but giving it expression remained a problem.
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He jumped ship and lived in French colonial Africa. There he survived by shooting game and selling it to local villagers. Affected by the suffering he witnessed in the French colonies, Cartier-Bresson said of its impact on his artistic conceptions, “The adventurer in me felt obliged to testify with a quicker instrument than a brush to the scars of the world.” He made tentative experiments with photography—only seven photographs survive—but continued to paint. He returned to France after suffering an attack of black water fever. Back home, he deepened his contact with the Surrealists. He saw a picture by the Hungarian photographer Munkacsi, entitled, “Three Boys at Lake Tanganyika.”
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Cartier-Bresson describes the impact this made on him: “The only thing which completely was an amazement to me and brought me to photography was the work of Munkacsi. When I saw the photograph of Munkacsi of the black kids running in a wave I couldn't believe such a thing could be caught with the camera. I said damn it, I took my camera and went out into the street.”
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The Leica as an “extension of the eye”
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In 1923 the German Eranomax camera was invented, which enabled photographs to be taken in bad light. The Leica followed—a small, lightweight, hand-held camera—which Cartier-Bresson adopted in 1932. He described it as an extension of his eye. The anonymity it gave him in a crowd or during an intimate moment was essential in overcoming the formal and unnatural behaviour of those who were aware of being photographed. It opened up new possibilities in photography—the ability to capture the world in its actual state of movement and transformation. “For me, the camera is a sketch book, an instrument of intuition and spontaneity, the master of the instant which—in visual terms—questions and decides simultaneously,” Cartier-Bresson wrote. “In order to ‘give a meaning' to the world, one has to feel oneself involved in what he frames through the viewfinder. This attitude requires concentration, a discipline of mind, sensitivity, and a sense of geometry. It is by great economy that one arrives at simplicity of expression.”
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Between 1931 and 1935 he travelled in Eastern Europe, Spain and Mexico. He lived amongst the poor. The writer André Pieyre de Mandiargues accompanied him and witnessed the emergence of his genius for photography “through a spontaneous activity, which, rather like a game at first, forced itself on the young painter as poetry may force itself on other young people. Not with any thought of making a profitable career out of it....
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“For him the beauty of the picture is to be found in unveiling a certain mystery, and in the shock of the fantastic, where tragedy is mixed with comedy ... rather as in the best stories of Hoffman, Poe, Balzac, Kafka and Maurice Blanchot, or in the old Chaplin and Keaton films, which must surely have helped him find his way.”
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One picture, “Valencia 1933,” is of a young child throwing a ball in the air. It rises out of sight into the sun. His eyes turn white; a hand rests on the wall. The moment of repose, as he senses the ball rising, is blissful. He experiences the event as though his inner spirit, his instinct, suddenly surfaces.
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Cartier-Bresson's photographs of this period excite feelings for life's infinite sensual complexities. His work stimulates an imaginative appreciation of reality. Their language is visual, yet they are closer to the poetic images of the great Surrealist writers. They are all the more astonishing for being extracted directly from life. Surrealist artists discovered “found” or “ready-made” objects in the street and transformed them by adding another object or altering their environment. Cartier-Bresson's pictures are “found” in the street, in poetical juxtapositions that occur in the movement of everyday life. “As I photograph with my little Leica, I have the feeling that there is something so right about it: With one eye that is closed one looks within. With the other eye that is open one looks without,” he wrote. Cartier-Bresson's eye travels between the inner and outer world of his subject. His most successful pictures capture those moments when a pulse runs between the inner self and impacts on the self's outer appearance.
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His first-ever exhibition was held in Mexico in 1935, and then at the Julien Levy gallery in New York. At the age of 27, he was increasingly putting his faith in the Stalinist Communist parties. In New York, he stayed with the composer Nicolas Nabokov, who explains Cartier-Bresson's growing concern at the deteriorating political situation: “We had long talks mostly on morals and politics. I suppose both of us were radicals. But to Cartier-Bresson the Communist movement was the bearer of history, of mankind's future—especially in those years, when Hitler had saddled Germany and when a civil war was about to explode in Spain.... Fortunately, Henri Cartier-Bresson was never dogmatic or didactic about his beliefs or his learning.”
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An exploration of film
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Cartier-Bresson was fascinated by the possibilities of the moving image. It is said that his bursts of creativity in photography were intervals between his interest in other forms of artistic expression. He studied film in New York under Paul Strand. Possibly he was trying to discover, as in Africa, an instrument that would be even more immediate than his camera in capturing the scars of the world.
His concerns over the rise of fascism were growing. This was a tumultuous period in politics and in his artistic evolution, in which he was reconsidering the relationship between art and social revolution. On returning to Paris in 1936 he assisted the director Jean Renoir on his 1937 propagandist film, La Vie est à Nous [ People of France], for the left Popular Front government. Cartier-Bresson criticised the film as “doctrinaire”, but at the same time he said it expressed the “great feeling” there was for the “Front Populaire.” During the Spanish civil war he co-directed an anti-fascist film with Herbert Kline, promoting the Republican medical services. Cartier-Bresson himself filmed a group of young children playing in the streets. This brief sequence is very beautiful, catching the children's unaffected joyful movement. For him, the freedom of childhood had become a symbol of liberty. He worked as an actor in Renoir's 1936 film Un Parti de Campagne [ A Day in the Country], also in the 1939 La Règle du Jeu [ The Rules of the Game], where he was second assistant. Renoir made him act, so he could understand what it felt like on the other side of the camera.
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Cartier-Bresson explains his artistic and personal responses to his experience with film: “A movie director for me is a fiction writer. It's telling the story, which is a wonderful thing, and directing and I'm incapable of giving orders to an actor ... it's not my world.” He was dissatisfied with what he perceived as a lack of spontaneity in the detailed planning and construction needed for filmmaking. It is not necessary to agree with Cartier-Bresson about film to understand that photography was better suited to his artistic talents and temperament.
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At Ce Soir
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He turned to the political struggle and put his art at the service of the French Communist Party. Between 1937 and 1939 he was a photographer for the party's evening newspaper Ce Soir. The paper's editor was former Surrealist poet and writer, Louis Aragon. During these times many artists abandoned their own independent creative work and subordinated themselves to the service of Stalinism. Aragon is a case in point.
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At Ce Soir, Cartier-Bresson joined Robert Capa and David Seymour. They were given more freedom than other photographers, but were obliged, as he explains, to photograph “‘chiens ecrasés' [literally “run-over dogs”—slang for mundane news shots], on a regular basis.” He turned to photographing “the masses”, and his pictures took on a documentary, sociological character, different from his earlier Surrealist-inspired photographs. Galassi explains it in this way: “Beginning in the late 1930s, Cartier-Bresson's attitude towards his own work began to change, and with it his style. In broad terms the shift in attitude may be described as a greater openness to worldly or social as opposed to personal and artistic concerns.”
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It is difficult to know how much artistic independence Cartier-Bresson retained from the Stalinist apparatus during this period. At the outbreak of the Second World War, he joined the French army's film and photographic unit. He was captured with 1.5 million others, just as the French bourgeoisie signed the pact that would create the pro-fascist Vichy regime. He was a prisoner of war for three years and worked as a forced labourer under the Nazis.
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In 1943, on his third attempt, he escaped from a prisoner of war camp, working on a “safe” farm before travelling to Paris to join the resistance. There he worked with the underground in a photographic unit recording the Nazi occupation and the liberation. During this time he took some of his most enigmatic portraits, of Matisse, Braque and others. On one occasion, he returned to the farm and discovered that, two days before, all those who had helped him had been exposed by an agent and sent to the Buchenwald death camp.
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In 1944-45, he worked on another documentary film, Le Retour [ The Return], sponsored by the US Office of War Information, which showed the return of French prisoners and displaced persons. He took his film crew to record scenes that did not need constructing and with players who did not need directing. He was using the film camera to capture the same movement of reality that he sought through his Leica. One scene, where families gather at a train station to meet their sons, brothers and lovers, shows an almost unbearable unleashing of suppressed passions.
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As at Ce Soir, Cartier-Bresson faced interference in his work. He was obstructed when he tried to shoot his own scenes and an entire reel was edited out. He describes his desire, as the post-war era began, to be free to use his art to create a better world. “I felt close again to André Breton and to his attitude: ‘First of all, life!' It was later that I became a photographic reporter.”
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The Magnum co-operative
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In 1947, during a reunion of Ce Soir photographers, David Seymour and Robert Capa persuaded Cartier-Bresson to join Magnum. Along with George Rogers they formed an influential co-operative that attracted photographers of the calibre of Werner Bischof and Ernst Haas. Cartier-Bresson described its significance at the time: “To be autonomous is something very important. It means you're not on a payroll of anybody, you can decide what you want to do” and you could “put your own questions”. The stated purpose of Magnum was to “feel the pulse” of the times.
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Some of their first projects were “People Live Everywhere”, “Youth of the World”, “Women of the World” and “The Child Generation”. Their aim was to use photography in the service of humanity, giving birth to the conception, most associated with Cartier-Bresson, of “life photography”. Magnum provided some of the most arresting and popular images of this period.
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How had the political struggles of the 1930s and the war affected Cartier-Bresson's views on photography? He explains, “I became less interested in what one might call an ‘abstract' approach to photography. Not only did I become more and more interested in human and plastic values, but I believe I can say that a new spirit arose among photographers in general; in their relationships not only to people, but to one another.”
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A conflict between abstract and concrete schools in painting, film and photography erupted in the post-war period. Cartier-Bresson made clear where he stood. But the true “pulse” of that time was not the rise of a Communist utopia. It was the savage betrayal by Stalinism of the revolutionary movements that gripped the world following the defeat of fascism. During this period, Stalinist political and artistic conceptions—the promotion of “Soviet” or “Social Realism”—acted as a dead hand on the artist's interpretation of the world. But there were still traces of Cartier-Bresson's earlier genius in some of his work.
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Photojournalism was not Cartier-Bresson's first aim, but when he turned his Leica to social upheaval he was unequalled in capturing elements of the process of social change. From 1947 to 1949 he travelled the world, including the United States, India and China. He was in China during the last six months of the Kuomintang dictatorship, and the first six months of the Maoist regime. One famous picture from this period is of a scramble for gold, issued by the Kuomintang at a Shanghai bank, as the value of the Chinese currency plummeted. The crowd, a mixture of desperate people from all classes, is crushed, as they hold each other up, on a thin path over a ditch. Heads appear from the strangest of angles and places. The picture expresses the mass of contradictions faced by the Kuomintang and Chinese society.
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It was while he was in China that Cartier-Bresson developed an interest in Buddhism and a fascination with its approach to external reality. What interested him was the Buddhist idea of disrupting nature as little as possible. It seemed to express an unformed direction in his photography of seeking to capturing things “as they are”, which was a far cry from the artistic vision of the Surrealists.
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Cartier-Bresson's theories of photographic art
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In 1952 he was preparing a retrospective book and wrote a number of essays, which have become known as “The Decisive Moment”. Whilst talking to the painter Pierre Bonnard, he took a photograph. Bonnard asked him why he made the shot at that precise moment. Cartier-Bresson replied, “Why did you just put that touch of yellow on your painting?” They both laughed, recognising that they understood each other. Cartier-Bresson adds, “Bonnard said intelligence is necessary and instinct. But finally instinct has a priority on intelligence, and I think this is fundamental. In the present world I think very often this is upside down—a dry conceptual intelligence. Intuition is lost—intuition, sensitivity and imagination.”
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The Tête-à-tête exhibition included video footage of Cartier-Bresson at work on the streets of Paris. He moves with great speed, instantly sees, rises on his toes, puts his camera to his eye and click! He was immersed in the act of creation, discovering simple truths through a synthesis of technique, intuition and freedom of thought.
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He describes this as “putting one's head, one's eye and one's heart on the same axis. One must seize the moment before it passes, the fleeting gesture, the evanescent smile.... That's why I'm so nervous—it's horrible for my friends—but it's only by maintaining a permanent tension that I can stick to reality.”
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The writer Malcolm Brinnin described Cartier-Bresson's physical state during and between these decisive moments. His “eye is polyhedral, like a fly's. Focusing on one thing, he quivers in the imminence of ten others.... When there's nothing in view, he's mute, unapproachable, humming-bird tense.”
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Cartier-Bresson examines the synthesis between knowledge, humanity, technique, form, chance and sheer intuition. The “decisive moment” is when all these elements come together and interact with the subject, thus transcending the everyday and revealing something of the nature of life.
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The value of his portraits has been debated amongst artists and art critics. Some say they are more like caricatures and do not in the main reveal much about his subject. Others believe they are profound insights into human nature. His “humanistic” approach to his subjects did allow him a glimpse into the nature of his subject. His purpose was to place his camera “between the skin and the shirt of a person” regardless of their social position. This humanism dominated in Stalinist-influenced artistic circles. Did it express a retreat in Cartier-Bresson's cultural and historical understanding; almost a reversal of his earlier views on art, philosophy and history?
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During his recent BBC interview, Cartier-Bresson made a point of summing up, at the age of 90, his own artistic outlook. He cites the views of the English philosopher Francis Bacon (1561-1626) that “The contemplation of things as they are, without error or confusion without substitution or imposture is, in its self, a nobler thing than a whole harvest of inventions.” Cartier-Bresson adds, “That is a respect of reality.”
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Bacon laid the foundations of the modern approach to scientific research. He accumulated a mass of factual material and, through it, sought insight into the laws of nature. But there is an artificial connection made here between art and science. The artist is not the same as the scientist. The artist cognises the external world through images. Cartier-Bresson's later work gives the distinct impression not of probing the laws of his own artistic vision, but of exploring the world separate from that distinctive vision. Hegel, in his Philosophy of Art describes the "subjective mind" as the "spirit of art".
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Does his interpretation of Bacon represent a retreat from artistic truth—an acceptance of reality “as it appears to us”? Cartier-Bresson had believed that the purpose of art was revolutionary, to transform the world. Now he speaks of “things as they are”. It is almost as if the artist has turned from cognising the world to becoming an impassioned recorder of aspects of its appearance. There is a connection here with Cartier-Bresson's interest in Buddhism and the Buddhist approach to nature external to themselves.
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From the mid-1970s, he painted and drew pictures and turned away from photography. He recently illustrated a new release of Aragon's The Peasant of Paris. He describes this turn as a kind of “test”, but offers no further explanation. After a lifetime of developing his artistic vision through photography, he now says, “All I care about these days is painting—photography has never been more than a way into painting, a sort of instant drawing.” The problems of his approach to reality are not overcome in his paintings and drawings. It is difficult to explain, but they seem to exude a sense of resignation.
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With his return to painting, Cartier-Bresson now comments on the limited potential of photography. This reflects a narrowing of his attitude to photographic art. When young, his photographs unleashed the enormous artistic potential of the camera. Now he describes what he believes to be the “transient” nature of photography, comparing it to the disappearance of the art of stained glass windows after the Middle Ages.
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The process that led Cartier-Bresson to abandon photography and return to painting is no doubt complex. Possibly he was motivated by a desire to recapture the freshness, excitement and idealism of his youth. But did it also express a germ of recognition that what had animated his artistic life from the beginning—“the desire to paint and to change the world”—had been ruptured through the experiences he had and the choices he had made throughout his life?
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Some of Henri Cartier-Bresson's work may be viewed at these sites:
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Donald McCullin: An artist “shaped by war”


By Danny Richardson
14 June 2010
McCullinDonald McCullin
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The renowned British photographer Donald McCullin’s exhibition Shaped by War, in collaboration with the Imperial War Museum (IWM), was recently on display at the IWM North in Manchester. It will now be shown in Bath from September and in London from October 2011.
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Launched to mark his 75th birthday, it is the largest exhibition of McCullin’s work to date. Accompanying the 200 prints are various objects, magazines and personal memorabilia. On show are many of his easily recognisable photographs—indeed his photographs of almost every major conflict from the early 1960s until the Falklands War in 1982 are some of the most potent images of the 20th Century—as well as a few newer and some lesser known prints. 
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Although this allows the viewer to grasp the varied aspects of Donald McCullin’s career, as is obvious from the exhibition’s title, most of the display centres on the wars and conflicts he covered for a variety of newspapers and magazines.
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McCullin was born on 9 October 1935 in Finsbury Park, London, into a working class family, who, like the majority in the 1930s, lived in poverty. His father was an invalid and after his death the 14-year-old McCullin left art school to work at odd jobs to keep the family from falling deeper into hardship. His last job before National Service was as a messenger for a cartoon animation studio in Mayfair.
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He was conscripted into the Royal Air Force (RAF), serving in the photography service, developing prints from reconnaissance flights over the Canal Zone in Egypt, from Kenya and from Cyprus. He failed the written examination to become an aerial photographer—he was later to be diagnosed with dyslexia—but he did buy his first camera, a twin lens Rolleicord.
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When he became a professional, he exchanged it for a single lens reflex Pentax, later taking up one of the photojournalists’ favourite cameras, the Nikon F7, which was developed in 1959. One such camera was to save his life in Cambodia in 1970 by stopping a bullet. This camera is on show in the exhibition. He was also shot in the groin during the same assignment. He suffered multiple fractures to his arm when he fell off a roof under crossfire in El Salvador in 1982.
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The exhibition begins with the images that launched McCullin’s 50-year career as a photojournalist. His first photograph to appear in print was of a gang named “The Guv’nors” from Finsbury Park, London. As a 23-year-old, he occasionally hung around with them, taking photographs with his Rolleicord. He had pawned this camera after leaving the RAF, but his mother redeemed it. His shots of “The Guv’nors” were published by the Observer when the gang gained notoriety through the murder of a policeman by one of its members, Ronald Marwood, in February 1959. Marwood confessed to the killing and was hanged in May of that year.
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The Observer photo editor thought McCullin had some raw talent and took him on as a freelancer for the paper. McCullin later moved to the Sunday Telegraph and then again, on the invitation of David King, to the Sunday Times, which in the 1960s developed the magazine format for photo coverage of the week’s major events. He became a valued member of the Sunday Times magazine staff, working under Editor Harold Evans and Arts Editor King. McCullin rates his years at the Times under Evans as the best of his career.
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His career would see him move out of the tenement environment of North London and take him on a self-financed trip to Berlin to cover the building of the Berlin Wall. This brought him his first award, a British Press Award for a series of photos on the Wall.
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Next came his first official assignment for the Observer, the civil war in Cyprus. It was followed rapidly by several assignments in Vietnam, Northern Ireland, Israel, Lebanon, South America and Africa.
Turkish war widow 
A Turkish woman surrounded by her distressed family mourning her dead husband
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Cyprus brought him his first international awards, the World Press Photo Award of 1964 and the Warsaw Gold Medal. The shot that won the awards shows a Turkish woman surrounded by her distressed family mourning her dead husband. This scene is mirrored in many similar photographs: different women separated by geography and time, but connected through their grief and despair. A dramatic shot of a Turkish fighter rushing out of a cinema into the sun-drenched street while gripping a machine gun is a classic early McCullin shot. This style is also evident in his work covering the British occupation of Northern Ireland.
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Don McCullin had no formal training as a photographer. His early technical education came from books purchased with the money he received for “The Guv’nor” photographs. He developed his own compositional style.
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The video facility at the exhibition is a welcome addition. With precise narration by McCullin himself, the viewer is brought ever closer to the action. You can sense the genuine emotion he still carries for the subjects in his photographs. The narration on a print of a skeletal albino boy in Biafra is particularly harrowing. He recalls his distress looking into the dying boy’s eyes.
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As McCullin explains, “Photography for me is not looking, it’s feeling. If you can’t feel what you’re looking at, then you’re never going to get others to feel anything when they look at your pictures”.
Walking through the exhibition you become aware that, for McCullin, conflict is about the impact it has on people, fighters or civilians. Their anguish and fear and the carnage are captured through his camera’s lens. They are never glorified, sentimentalised or commercialised for the benefit of a photo editor back in Fleet Street. Through these dramatic images, he brought the madness and misery created by the violence of war to the rest of the world.
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In the book that accompanies the exhibition, also named Shaped by War, the photographer writes “I have my own code of conduct, I’ve kept it to this day. It’s about being a decent human being…. It’s about simple respect and common decency”.
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He confesses to feeling like an interloper taking images of other people’s misery. He recalls being attacked and beaten ferociously by a Palestinian woman after capturing her distress with his camera. Listening to him recounting this incident many years later, his compassion and humanity are unmistakable. His quiet, almost apologetic voice makes you begin to understand how his work affected him. There are many such examples in the exhibition. They express the feelings of a human being who refused to be separated from what he was witnessing.
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Soldier 
An exhausted US Marine in Hue during the Vietnam War
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But for his work and that of other dedicated photographers, such as Phillip Jones Griffiths, Nik Ut and Eddie Adams, among many others, the horrors of the death and destruction meted out to the poor and oppressed people around the world during the latter part of the 20th Century would have remained hidden from view. Their work helped to bring home the terrible reality that tens of thousands of young men were being sent around the globe to kill and be killed, or to become mentally and physically damaged, not on some noble crusade as the politicians would have the world believe, but to satisfy the greed of the ruling classes. Millions of youth around the world were politicised by the Vietnam War and McCullin’s images played a part in that.
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One cannot but be struck by the sharp contrast between McCullin’s work and that of today’s journalists and photojournalists embedded with US or NATO forces in Iraq or Afghanistan.
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Western governments and military experts were quick to address their mistake in allowing certain freedoms for journalists. McCullin was barred from entering Vietnam after his coverage of the retreat by the South Vietnamese Army. In 1972 he was expelled from Uganda by Idi Amin. He was also denied a place on the selected list of journalists to cover the British-Argentinean war for the Falklands in 1982.
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With the takeover of the Sunday Times by Rupert Murdoch, work began to dry up—but not by accident. As McCullin explained in his autobiography, a friend of his who went to a meeting with Andrew Neil, the editor, summed up the new modus operandi as: “No more starving Third World babies; more successful businessmen around their weekend barbecues”. “And that was the direction things took”, wrote McCullin, who left the Sunday Times after 18 years with the newspaper.
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The starkest and most striking images are in McCullin’s favoured black and white format, although, he says “I can use colour very well too”. While he is better known as a war photographer, a title he detests, his work has varied from the Beatles and brilliant landscapes of Britain and India to social deprivation in 1970s Britain.
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The exhibition ends with his prints from his latest project produced using large format photography. The images are published in Southern Frontiers: A Journey Across the Roman Empire. His turn to this format at a relatively late age only underlines his desire to keep learning his trade.
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McCullin’s renowned photographic style is matched with an equal ability in the darkroom. This side of his talent is less known to the public. In the exhibition there is a raw print showing a close-up head shot of a shell-shocked US marine taken during the Hue offensive in Cambodia. It is covered with yellow sticky notes, denoting how much of this or that part of the print needed to be dodged or burnt in. The work done to expose clearly the look in the eyes of the marine makes the photograph outstanding.
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Taking a shot was just the beginning for McCullin. In his day, it was not possible to review and edit on camera a finished photograph. Long hours sifting through contact sheets, then selecting and working with a few frames was an art in itself. Indeed, the ease of digital photography today makes McCullin’s art all the more impressive.
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At 23, he had a budding gift. At 75, although he would be the last to say it, he is a master of his craft. In 1987, in an interview with Frank Hervat, he said, “I am tired of guilt, tired of saying to myself: ‘I didn’t kill that man on that photograph, I didn’t starve that child’. That’s why I want to photograph landscapes and flowers. I am sentencing myself to peace”.
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Donald McCullin deserves any peace he can find. Reading through his autobiography, Unreasonable Behaviour, you are struck on each page by the harsh mental consequences his extraordinary career has had for him. If the outcome of a peaceful life for McCullin is more work of the calibre of his latest landscapes, all the better for the rest of us.
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Shaped by War is at the Victoria Art Gallery, Bath, from September 11-November 21, 2010, and at the London Imperial War Museum from October 2011-January 2012.
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There is an informative BBC audio slideshow of Shaped by War, with optional captions, and commentary by Rebecca Jones and Dan McMillan available on the Internet.
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The author also recommends:
[5 November 1999]
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Você acha que entende de photoshop?

Esse programa revolucionou as artes gráficas. Cada vez mais surgem manipuladores fotográficos com talento, e é preciso conhecer muito de fotografia, design e do Photoshop, além de ter muitas vezes que desempenhar a função de direção de arte. 
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Abaixo segue uma seleção que o site GeekSucks.com trouxe pra gente, uma amostra do que alguns artistas são capazes de fazer em relação à manipulação de imagens. Confiram:
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http://wp.clicrbs.com.br/semcensura/2010/08/30/voce-acha-que-entende-de-photoshop/?topo=84,2,18,,,77
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segunda-feira, 30 de agosto de 2010

Cliques contemporâneos

domingo, 29 de agosto de 2010 7:36

Ângela Corrêa
Do Diário do Grande ABC

0 comentário(s)

O que motiva um clique? Por que alguns fotógrafos escolhem temas quase oníricos para expressar suas ideias? Quão documental pode ser uma foto? Essas e outras questões são abordadas no livro A Fotografia como Arte Contemporânea (Editora Martins Fontes, 248 págs., R$ 59) da diretora de criação do Museu Nacional de Mídia do Reino Unido, Charlotte Cotton.
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Sua motivação, explica a autora, é que nunca o mercado esteve tão aberto à arte fotográfica. "Sempre houve quem a promovosse como uma forma de arte ao lado da pintura e da escultura, mas nunca essa perspectiva foi difundida com tanta frequência e veemência como agora", explica.
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A pesquisa de Charlotte detectou oito categorias de fotografia na contemporaneidade, que foram divididas em capítulos. Temáticas, estilos, estéticas, paisagens urbanas e rurais ora desoladoras, ora cheias de vida, independentemente de haver pessoas enquadradas. O crivo da autora, que já foi curadora de exposições diversas no Reino Unido, vai além de organizar publicações do gênero. Artistas japoneses, suíços e taiuaneses, além dos britânicos, são explorados.
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A autora destrincha cada imagem que escolheu colocar no livro: detalha influências, um possível contexto histórico, localização e por vezes identifica os personagens.
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O resultado do trabalho é um apanhado de imagens em sua maior parte impactantes ao primeiro olhar, mas cheias de significados. Sobretudo para os que sempre se perguntaram o que se passa na cabeça dos fotógrafos antes e depois de produzir as imagens.
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A primeira parte se dedica justamente a isso: de como se é possível subverter o pensamento de que o fotógrafo é apenas um colecionador de momentos aleatórios. Aqui, a fotografia é um objeto artístico por si só e não como simples registro do que se passou.
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O uso documental também é abordado, numa retrospectiva quase histórica dessa arte que transcende o fotojornalismo.
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Um dos capítulos mais interessantes, porém, é o que retrata a vida íntima. Nudez, mulheres que acabaram de dar à luz, aspectos do corpo humano que podem causar repulsa transfigurados em suporte para uma manifestação que pode ser até sutil. Larry Clark, fotógrafo que invariavelmente se aventura no cinema (como em Kids, de 1995), é um dos profissionais que tiveram fotos selecionadas nessa seção. Outro cineasta, O alemão Wim Wenders, também tem seus registros.
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domingo, 29 de agosto de 2010

sábado, 28 de agosto de 2010

A luz de Chico

Edição de 28 de Agosto de 2010

~FOTOGRAFIA (27/8/2010) 

Foto da matéria

Clique para Ampliar
Fotografia do livro "Mucuripe", de Chico Albuquerque, realizada em meados da década de 40. Esta e outras 24 imagens fazem parte da exposição que fica em cartaz até 21 de outubro
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27/8/2010
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Um recorte da obra do lendário fotógrafo cearense Francisco Afonso de Albuquerque (1917-2000), mais conhecido como seu Chico Albuquerque, pode ser visto a partir de amanhã, no Sobrado José Lourenço

Serão 25 fotografias, ampliadas em papel algodão, expostas em tamanho 50x60cm, pertencentes ao acervo do Instituto Cultural Chico Albuquerque (ICCA), em parceria com o Instituto Viva Brasil.

"Acompanhei Chico Albuquerque durante 15 anos, de 1985 a 2000. Nos aproximamos porque ele ficou amigo de Gentil Barreira, meu marido. Nesse tempo, realizamos exposições, editamos livros e organizamos o acervo", diz Patrícia Veloso, responsável pela Editora Terra da Luz.

Na abertura da exposição, além de Patrícia, o presidente do ICCA, Ricardo Albuquerque (filho de Chico Albuquerque), e o fotógrafo Silas de Paula, participarão de mesa redonda para discutir o trabalho do artista cearense. "Em 1989, editamos o primeiro livro dele, ´Mucuripe´. Dez anos depois, em 1999, montamos uma exposição com a retrospectiva dos 65 anos de sua obra. No início deste ano, foi editado o livro ´Chico Albuquerque Fotografias´", acrescenta a curadora da mostra.

A exposição que entra em cartaz este sábado, intitulada "Chico Albuquerque Fotografias", e que faz parte da publicação homônima, é a retrospectiva de quatro séries do fotógrafo: "Ensaios" (com fotos de 1930 a 1960); "Mucuripe" (1942 a 1952); "Frutas" (1978) e "Jericoacoara" (1985).

"Chico Albuquerque é um dos maiores nomes da fotografia do País. Era conhecido por sua perspectiva criativa, pelo olhar instigante. Ele era um virtuose da técnica fotográfica", ressalta Patrícia.

Além de ter inovado a fotografia publicitária no Brasil, assinando campanhas nas áreas de moda, culinária, arquitetura e automobilismo, Albuquerque produziu célebres ensaios autorais, como os "portraits" de Juscelino Kubitschek, Jânio Quadros, Burle Marx, Aldemir Martins, Cacilda Becker, dentre outras personalidades.

Outro legado deixado por Chico foi o impulso à valorização e formação de novos fotógrafos em Fortaleza. "Quando ele voltou de São Paulo, em 1975, já era respeitado no mercado. Se hoje a fotografia do Ceará conquistou reconhecimento nacional e internacional, deve muito a ele", diz Patrícia Veloso.

Além do Instituto Cultural Chico Albuquerque, criado em 2003 para difundir a obra do fotógrafo e a de seu pai, Adhemar Bezerra de Albuquerque, foi firmado convênio entre o Museu da Imagem e do Som de São Paulo (MIS-SP) e o Instituto Moreira Sales (IMS), para preservação e catalogação dos trabalhos. Atualmente, o IMS é responsável pelo acervo com 60 mil arquivos.

FIQUE POR DENTRO
Chico Albuquerque
FRANCISCO AFONSO de Albuquerque nasceu em Fortaleza, em 25 de abril de 1917. Iniciou na fotografia profissionalmente aos 17 anos e, em 1947, mudou-se para São Paulo, onde viveu até 1975. Nome consagrado na fotografia publicitária, foi responsável por grande transformação no mercado fotográfico cearense. Foi diretor do Foto Cine Clube Bandeirante e recebeu diversos prêmios nacionais e internacionais. Entre eles, Salão Internacional de Frankfurt (Alemanha/1953), Focus Salon Amsterdã (Holanda/1954) e Prêmio Nacional de Fotografia da Funarte (1998).

MAIS INFORMAÇÕES:
CHICO ALBUQUERQUE FOTOGRAFIAS. Exposição será aberta amanhã, às 9h, no Sobrado José Lourenço (R. Major Facundo, 154, Centro). Segunda a sexta das 9h às 19h. Sábado: 10h às 19h. Domingo: das 10h às 14h. Contatos: 3101-8826.


NATERCIA ROCHAREPÓRTER
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sexta-feira, 27 de agosto de 2010

Ansel Adams Trust processa coleccionador que diz ter comprado parte da obra do fotógrafo

Para impedir venda de imagens com nome do artista

26.08.2010 - 17:05 Por Ana Dias Cordeiro
O Ansel Adams Publishing Trust, grupo que controla os direitos da obra de um dos mais célebres fotógrafos do século XX, Ansel Adams (1902-1984), processou o coleccionador Rick Norsigian, o mesmo que no mês passado reclamou estar em posse de 61 negativos em placa de vidro da autoria do fotógrafo, comprados por acaso numa venda de garagem em Fresno, na Califórnia, há dez anos.
Uma das imagens cuja autoria foi atribuída a Adams e que agora está no centro do debate  
Uma das imagens cuja autoria foi atribuída a Adams e que agora está no centro do debate (DR/Cortesia Rick Norsigian)


Apoiado por uma equipa de peritos, que iniciou uma investigação em 2003, Norsigian anunciou que 17 negativos do conjunto de 61 estariam à venda e criou um espaço na Internet (www.lostnegatives.com) para vender essas imagens, com preços até 7500 dólares (perto de 6000 euros). O conjunto dos 61 negativos valeria 200 milhões de dólares (150 milhões de euros), disse então a equipa de especialistas.

O caso judicial visa agora impedir o coleccionador e a firma de advogados que o representa, a PRS Media Partners, de vender as imagens sob o nome do fotógrafo - que trabalhava em São Francisco e no Yosemite Park, na Califórnia - sem a autorização ou a aprovação do Ansel Adams Trust.

Na altura em que a autenticidade das imagens foi defendida pelos especialistas, no final de Julho, Matthew Adams, neto do fotógrafo Ansel Adams, disse ao PÚBLICO não perceber como se chegou ao valor anunciado de 200 milhões de dólares. A família diz, por exemplo, que o facto de não haver em lado algum registos destes negativos, como acontecia com todo o trabalho de Adams, levanta sérias dúvidas sobre a sua autoria.

“Pensamos que é irresponsável emitir este parecer com tão poucas provas”, afirmou então Matthew Adams por telefone, considerando que as dúvidas sobre a autenticidade dos negativos em posse de Rick Norsigian viriam a dificultar a venda das imagens, mas sem adiantar com toda a certeza se a família iria ou não tentar resolver o caso judicialmente. Essa seria uma decisão do grupo que controla os direitos de toda a obra de Ansel Adams, disse então Matthew Adams. Essa decisão acaba de ser tomada.

Ao mesmo tempo, também a exposição das imagens reveladas a partir dos negativos em posse de Rick Norsigian, prevista para Outubro, estará comprometida. A Universidade Estatal da Califórnia, em Fresno, anunciou que o espaço estava reservado mas que a exposição não teria lugar.

Entretanto, veio a público que um dos peritos envolvidos na avaliação dos negativos, David Streets, tem cadastro por roubo e fraude em dois estados dos EUA e que Marian Walton, residente em Oakland, tinha em casa uma foto muito semelhante aos negativos que Norsigian pôs à venda e que o autor da imagem era o seu tio, já falecido, Earl Brooks. Dois antigos assistentes de Adams, John Sexton e Alan Ross, analisaram as imagens e são de opinião que a fotografia em causa e os negativos comprados por Norsigian são do mesmo autor, revelou o "New York Times".
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quinta-feira, 26 de agosto de 2010

Olhares em preto e branco

CULTURA & LAZER

Olhares em preto e branco

quinta-feira, 26 de agosto de 2010 7:03

Luís Felipe Soares
Do Diário do Grande ABC


Mostrar quantos diferentes pontos de vista podem existir ao nosso redor. Esse é o objetivo da exposição Diversidade de Olhares, que abre hoje ao público na sede da Aciscs (Associação Comercial e Industrial de São Caetano). As imagens podem ser vistas até o dia 18 e a entrada é franca.
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O acervo faz parte de obras de associados do Fotoclube ABCClick, grupo que conta com participação de profissionais e amadores da fotografia de diferentes localidades do Grande ABC. "Pegamos um tema livre, de inspiração coletiva. É algo bem amplo para que não houvesse restrições", explica Ailton Tenório, um dos sócio-fundadores do fotoclube. "Temos imagens abstratas, cenas do cotidiano, natureza e detalhes de regiões, entre outras tantas possibilidades".
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Destaque para a presença de trabalhos que foram selecionados para 26ª Bienal Brasileira de Arte Fotográfica em Preto em Branco, ocorrida em junho em Caxias do Sul, no Rio Grande do Sul.
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Um deles é Admirável Mundo Novo, de Érico Marques, de São Bernardo. Ele utiliza de muita sensibilidade para transformar em arte o simples olhar de uma criança.
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Quem também teve seu talento exposto em Caxias do Sul foi Sueli Mozeika, de São Caetano. Em Subindo às Alturas, é possível perceber o belo jogo de sombras entre uma árvore e o céu.
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A bienal deste ano contou com inscrição de mais de 2.000 fotografias enviadas de diversas regiões do Brasil. Um corpo de júri formado por especialistas da área foi responsável pela seleção dos participantes.

Um total de 56 imagens de 14 autores foi enviado pelo Fotoclube ABCClick para a bienal. Como nem todas foram selecionadas, escolheram as duas melhores de cada para apresentarem em Diversidade de Olhares. Será possível encontrar obras de Luiz Gimenez, Marco Mandarino, Clotilde Ramim, Soraia Ciolfi, Juan Ibkcho, Claudio Galarrasa, João Golovatei, Rosane Pires, Anderson Castellanos, João Santiago, Alexander Potas e Sueli Almeida, além de trabalho de Ailton Tenório.

Diversidade de Olhares - Exposição fotográfica. Na Aciscs (Associação Comercial e Industrial de São Caetano) - Rua Amazonas, 318. Tel.: 2888-3400. Visitação a partir de hoje, de seg. a sex, das 9h às 18h. Grátis. Até dia 18.
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quarta-feira, 25 de agosto de 2010

Exposed at Tate Modern: Sandra Phillips on Surveillance


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tate | 23 de junho de 2010
SFMOMA's Curator of Photography Sandra Phillips describes how contemporary artists like Sophie Calle and Benjamin Lowry have started to talk back to surveillance.

Sandra Phillips is Guest Curator of Exposed: Voyeurism, Surveillance and the Camera at Tate Modern until 3 October 2010

Part of a series of Exposed interviews available for free on your mobile phone at Tate Modern
http://www.preview-web/modern/exhibit...
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tate | 15 de julho de 2010
Shai Kremer explains why beauty can be more powerful than violence. Shai's work is on display in Exposed: Voyeurism, Surveillance and the Camera at Tate Modern until 3 October 2010.

Part of a series of Exposed interviews available for free on your mobile phone at Tate Modern:
http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibit...
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tate | 15 de julho de 2010
Laurie Long on why she filmed her dates with a secret camera.
Laurie's work is on display in Exposed: Voyeurism, Surveillance and the Camera at Tate Modern until 3 October 2010.

Part of a series of Exposed interviews available for free on your mobile phone at Tate Modern:
http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibit...
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Exposed - Voyeurism, Surveillance & the Camera - As imagens que nunca devíamos ter visto


Ípsilon



Exposed - Voyeurism, Surveillance & the Camera

As imagens que nunca devíamos ter visto

18.08.2010 - Joana Amaral Cardoso, em Londres


Somos todos mirones, acusam as mais de 250 imagens de vigilância e voyeurismo reunidas em "Exposed - Voyeurism, Surveillance & the Camera". Parece a história desta era em que estamos todos expostos no Facebook, mas não: é a história da curiosidade humana tal como ela nos foi sendo contada pelo menos desde a Bíblia. Até 3 de Outubro, a Tate Modern é o buraco da fechadura 
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Há um vínculo qualquer entre a fotografia da criança que corre, corpo franzino queimado pelo napalm, no Vietname de 1972, e a imagem de uma Paris Hilton chorosa a caminho da prisão. Há um vínculo qualquer entre as imagens de um linchamento no final do século XIX nos EUA e os instantâneos digitais de soldados americanos montados em presos iraquianos em Abu Ghraib. Há, decididamente, um vínculo entre as imagens de vigilância dos aviões U2 que desencadearam a crise dos mísseis de Cuba na Baía dos Porcos e o programa de apanhados "Candid Camera".
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No primeiro caso, o vínculo é o fotógrafo, Nick Ut. No segundo, o vínculo é o propósito: a imagem, tal como as vítimas do acto, é um troféu, o símbolo de uma conquista. No terceiro, é tudo uma questão de vigilância.
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"Exposed - Voyeurism, Surveillance & the Camera" está na Tate Modern, em Londres, até 3 de Outubro. Depois, as mais de 250 imagens que varrem a história da vigilância e do voyeurismo do século XIX ao século XXI migram para o Museum of Modern Art de São Francisco, ao encontro da curadora que a concebeu inicialmente, Sandra S. Phillips, responsável pelo departamento de fotografia contemporânea da instituição.
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Esta ponte Reino Unido-América não é só um itinerário casual. Da potente mistura de erotismo, curiosidade, segredo, violência, celebridade, memória, vigilância (e concomitante ausência de privacidade) que resulta destas imagens, uma coisa sobressai: esta é uma realidade muito anglosaxónica, com incursões calculadas na Ásia e na América Latina. A cortina de ferro, o comunismo, o colonialismo, África, pouco disso espreita por entre as frestas de "Exposed".
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Mas "Exposed" conta uma história, uma história de desconforto e de espelhos em todo o lado, "watching you".
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Voyeurs desta história: Cartier-Bresson, Helmut Newton fetichista, Mapplethorpe e Patti Smith, Nan Goldin apaixonada pela sua família de amigos, Weegee excitado com Marilyn, Alison Jackson a forjar rainhas de Inglaterra ou Nicholsons num dia de raiva, Yoko Ono, Guy Bourdin, Robert Frank, Merry Alpern ou Susan Meiselas. E Larry Clark "high on speed culture", Bruce Nauman às escuras no Novo México, Richard Avedon enamorado das cicatrizes de fama de Andy Warhol, Mario Testino bruto num anúncio para a Gucci. Mais a morte de Diana, o oficial vietcong executado, Jacqueline em fase Onassis em fuga no Central Park. Os poços petrolíferos em chamas na primeira Guerra do Golfo. Elizabeth Taylor e Richard Burton apanhados na piscina em férias. O filme Zapruder como prova da horrível morte de JFK.
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Nós?
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É uma sequência de imagens voraz, uma experiência que mistura o prazer com o desconforto de ver coisas que nunca deveriam ter sido vistas. Há as imagens de bisbilhotice, as de titilação erótica, as de projecto, os murros no estômago. Há a brutalidade que fez Susan Sontag, confrontada com imagens da Segunda Guerra Mundial e do Vietname, recordar em "On Photography": "Uma vez vistas estas imagens, encetámos o caminho para ver mais - e mais. As imagens trespassam. As imagens anestesiam".
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Ver "Exposed" é por vezes difícil, pelo menos sem antestesia. Faz-nos pensar, como explica o comissário britânico da exposição, Simon Baker, na moral do espectador, na erosão da privacidade, na inversão do público e do privado na era pós-Habermas e pós-McLuhan, a era do sr. Facebook. Que nos diz que o mundo é melhor se partilharmos tudo: um mundo de paredes transparentes e fotografias para todos.
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Ao telefone, Simon Baker admite que sim, que há elementos desconfortáveis na mostra que marca a sua estreia como comissário de fotografia da Tate. Dá como exemplo "The Park", de Kohei Yoshiyuki, uma série de fotografias nocturnas de casais que escolhiam os parques de Tóquio para fazer sexo rodeados, com ou sem o seu conhecimento, por grupos de mirones. "Nos anos 70, no Japão, eram mostradas no escuro. Davam-nos uma lanterna e encontrávamos assim as imagens, de uma forma muito teatral. Há difíceis questões éticas, e mesmo legais, suscitadas por este material".
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Mas não é só o sexo, nem é só a violência de um homem esborrachado no chão. É a maneira como as vemos. "Habituámo-nos a ver imagens de violência e sexo, mas acho que não nos habituámos a pensar muito sobre elas", diz-nos Sandra Phillips. Sobretudo, não nos habituámos a questionar a nossa participação, até sermos confrontados com imagens como as de Susan Meiselas, que fotografa o público de um espectáculo de "striptease" e não as próprias "strippers". Meiselas, sublinha a curadora, procura ultrapassar "o fetichismo para pensar em quem está a olhar, como está a olhar e o que significa olhar". "Ela faz-nos questionar a nossa participação naquele processo", enfatiza.
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Ou seja, não somos nós no retrato. Mas somos nós como espectadores. "Talvez seja por isso que a exposição faz as pessoas sentirem-se desconfortáveis".
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"Exposed" não é fácil, portanto, embora lhe faltem as imagens difíceis de Abu Ghraib, que o Centro Internacional de Fotografia de Nova Iorque mostrou em 2004. São imagens de um voyeurismo que nada tem de novo. Imagens de tortura, instantâneos de esmagamento cultural, tão marcantes quanto as da crise de mísseis de Cuba, e o verde tremido das imagens nocturnas dessas mesma guerra. Nenhuma dessas imagens está na Tate, explica Sandra Phillips, porque não são "verdadeiramente interessantes enquanto fotografias" e "[porque] as vimos demasiadas vezes": é "provavelmente mais provocador" recuar até algumas fotografias do Vietname que são "francamente mais brutais", e sobretudo mais esquecidas.
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Simon Baker discorda: "Quando faço visitas guiadas, acabo sempre por recorrer a Abu Ghraib para explicar as imagens de linchamentos, porque elas estão cheias de pessoas orgulhosas do que fizeram. As imagens de Abu Ghraib também, e tiveram uma circulação exactamente como elas".
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Afinal, as imagens mais reconhecíveis pelo grande público servem como prancha para fazer ressaltar as fotografias produzidas por artistas com a intenção de nos mostrar tudo: como Nan Goldin, na sua recentemente digitalizada "The Ballad of Sexual Dependency", em que de forma pungente nos mostra, em cerca de 700 imagens, a sua vida através da vida dos amigos. "Há a noção comum de que o fotógrafo é por natureza um voyeur, o último a ser convidado para a festa. Mas eu não estou na festa sem ser convidada, esta é a minha festa. Esta é a minha família, a minha história", explicou a artista.
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Nação paparazzi
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A ligação do voyeurismo com a arte é antiga. Na Tate, imagem de Henri Cartier-Bresson com Charles Henri Ford à saída de um urinol de Paris; 40 anos antes, Degas fotografado por Giuseppe Primoli nos mesmos preparos. Christian Boltanski, lembra-nos a imprensa britânica a propósito de "Exposed", está a transmitir tudo o que faz, em directo, para o bunker de um coleccionador, e continuará a fazê-lo até morrer. Merry Alpern e os seus múltiplos projectos (exemplos vários na Tate Modern): a levar a sua máquina para os provadores de lojas ("Shopping"), a fotografar bordéis em Wall Street a partir de um quarto do outro lado da rua ("Janela Indiscreta", anyone?). Sophie Calle, feita empregada de hotel para fotografar os pertences dos hóspedes na sua ausência.
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E claro, Yoshiyuki e a sua estranha obra no parque: "A minha intenção era captar o que se passava nos parques, por isso eu não era um verdadeiro voyeur. Mas acho, de certa forma, que o acto de tirar fotografias é em sim algo voyeurístico. Por isso talvez seja um voyeur, porque sou fotógrafo".
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Warhol trabalhou a cara assustada de Jaqueline Kennedy e a imagem de mulheres a saltarem de janelas de hotéis em chamas (algum dia alguém se apropriará, do mesmo modo, do homem que caía do World Trade Center a 11 de Setembro de 2001?). Foi também um dos primeiros a adoptar a câmara de filmar portátil da Sony, Portapak (1967). E depois foi fotografado, como num círculo perverso que se completa, por Richard Avedon, exibindo o esplendor das suas cicatrizes na ressaca do ataque de um fã.
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A nação paparazzi (vulgo Califórnia, país com capital em Hollywood) preocupou-se com isto e gerou legislação tonitruante: o Estatuto Anti-Paparazzi tenta dificultar a publicação de fotos furtivas e controlar a pulsão humana do clique. Que entretanto se tornou ainda mais obsessiva graças aos telemóveis com câmara, à Internet.
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A cronologia que abre as portas da exposição (e que reproduzimos parcialmente nestas páginas) diz-nos que está tudo ligado. O panóptico de Bentham e os "Apanhados" de Joaquim Letria. O YouTube e o Google Earth. Orwell, claro. A presença do olhar voyeurista é uma herança cultural desde a Bíblia. Como sociedade, sempre fomos voyeurs - nos "boudoirs", nas cavernas, nos primeiros filmes pornográficos criados logo após a invenção da câmara de cinema.
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Ao levar o nosso olhar, ao longo de 13 salas, de meados do século XIX aos dias de hoje, "Exposed" coloca-nos perante o paradoxo original da fotografia: era inevitável que esta arte servisse estes fins, certo? "Penso que muita fotografia, talvez até o próprio meio, é na verdade uma zona cinzenta, sem moralidade, apesar de presumirmos que diz a verdade", aponta Sandra Phillips.
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"Desde muito cedo a fotografia foi usada para produzir imagens mais negras - controlo estatal, pornografia, ciência, tipificação racial. Assim que se tornou barata, foi usada para [partilhar] quantidades maciças de pornografia. Algo que tem este potencial de massas pode facilmente atingir o mínimo denominador comum", corrobora o comissário da Tate Modern.
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Ver e ser visto
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As imagens de "Exposed" estão organizadas em cinco áreas: fotografia de rua, imagens sexuais, perseguição de celebridades, fotos de morte e violência, vigilância. Conjugamos o verbo fotografar no contexto "Celebrity & the Public Gaze": eu disparo, tu encolhes-te, ele foge; nós espreitamos, vós julgais, eles vêem. Nada mais evidente do que numa situação paparazzi: o caçador e a presa. A imagem de Jacqueline Onassis a correr pelo Central Park, perseguida por Ron Galella, paparazzo obcecado que acabou por ser obrigado judicialmente a deixar a viúva de Kennedy em paz: "What makes Jackie run?", 1971.
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"A fome humana de ver o proibido não mudou [desde os tempos bíblicos]. As tecnologias que o facilitam sim", escreve Sandra Phillips. "Olhamos para sexo e morte com a mesma curiosidade bisbilhoteira, sabendo que outrora foram visões privilegiadas. Fizemos toda uma cultura de celebridade [que começa, em termos fotográficos, no início do século XX] evoluir em torno da ambivalência entre o público e o privado." Mais, lê-se no catálogo de "Exposed": "A fotografia inventou a cultura de celebridades moderna", em que o público e o privado se misturam para construir uma terra de ninguém ambígua em que Angelina Jolie - glamorosa, aborrecidíssima, zangada, feliz, só, acompanhada - está sempre em fuga.
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Hoje, toda a gente tira fotografias, mas nem todos são fotógrafos. "Os fotógrafos sempre se distinguiram da massa, mesmo desde o século XIX. Não é fácil tirar uma boa fotografia, é fácil tirar uma fotografia. A multiplicação de aparelhos pode aumentar o número de imagens tiradas aleatoriamente, mas não vai expandir a fotografia como prática", reflecte Baker.
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E o público? É neutro como a Suíça? "É como se já não visse o espaço público como público. É interessante que, quando as vê num museu, o público se pergunte se é permitido perseguir pessoas nas ruas. Talvez ache que o espaço das celebridades é uma excepção em relação ao espaço público".
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Dizíamos no início que esta exposição é desconfortável. Para alguns, talvez, mas enquanto sociedade vivemos num limbo. Queremos ver tanto quanto queremos ser vistos? Tudo o que mostramos e devoramos sobre o outro indicaria que sim.
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"É uma discussão interessante nesta era das notícias 24 horas - o que precisamos de ver? O que é que nos deve ser mostrado? Esta manhã ouvi uma notícia interessante: um dos problemas da mancha de petróleo [no golfo do México] é não haver imagens suficientes do petróleo [risos]. Fugas muito menores geraram um impacto visual muito maior. Certos eventos parecem desaparecer quando não são acompanhados por imagens", rememora Baker.
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Hoje, escreve Sandra Phillips no catálogo, "a nossa cultura parece estar a acomodar-se à vigilância e já não considera o voyeurismo o perigo que era no passado". Nós? Essa massa, 500 milhões no Facebook, que vê "Exposed" e se fotografa logo a seguir para partilhar o momento online. Um grupo de estudantes espanhóis da Tate Modern. O Ípsilon, furtivamente, segue-os. O varandim com a magnífica vista para a City (a foto já cá canta, no telemóvel) está soalheiro. Quatro raparigas unem-se em torno da quinta, que salta de pernas bem no ar para as máquinas das amigas. Momentos depois, a fotografia estará num qualquer site, numa rede social. O voyeurismo nunca foi tão imediato.
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Uma história de vigilância...
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1785 - Jeremy Bentham cunha o Panóptico, o dispositivo prisional em que o observado não sabe de onde é visto pelo observador
1942 - É instalado,  na Alemanha, o 1º sistema  de CCTV [closed-circuit television]
1948 - O programa de "apanhados" "Candid  Camera" estreia-se nos EUA
1949 - George Orwell  publica o romance distópico "1984"
1954 - Estreia-se "Janela Indiscreta", de Alfred  Hitchcock
1960 - Federico Fellini  cunha o termo "paparazzi"  em "La Dolce Vita"
1962 - Imagens de  vigilância captadas por aviões U2 desencadeiam a crise  de mísseis de Cuba
1963 - Abraham Zapruder filma  o assassinato de John F. Kennedy
1973 - Um dos primeiros exemplos de "reality tv",  "An American Family",  estreia-se nos EUA
... e de voyeurismo
1990 - A Guerra do Golfo inaugura o ciclo noticioso  de 24 horas
1995 - Timothy McVeigh,  o bombista de Oklahoma,  é identificado graças a imagens de CCTV
1997 - Diana morre num acidente de viação quando era perseguida por paparazzi em Paris
1999 - Estreia-se na Holanda  o primeiro "Big Brother"
2001 - Na sequência dos atentados de 11 de Setembro, entra em vigor nos EUA o Patriot Act, que reduz as restrições à vigilância dos cidadãos pelas forças de segurança
2004 - Fotos de soldados  de Abu Ghraib tornam-se  os "souvenirs" da guerra  no Iraque
2005 - O YouTube é lançado
2007 - É lançada a opção  Street View no Google  Earth
2008 - É criada a  câmara Thru Vision,  que filma  através de tecidos e paredes
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Francisco e os falhanços do fotógrafo

* Victor Nogueira
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Pedro Martinelli em Curitiba


24/08/2010 às 13:42:43 - Atualizado em 24/08/2010 às 16:26:38

 
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Cabelos e barba compridos, gestos largos tipicamente italianos, Pedro Martinelli é um peso pesado do fotojornalismo brasileiro. Foram 10 anos em O Globo e outros 17 no Grupo Abril. Fez de tudo. Copa, Olimpíada, Guerra na Nicaraguá e até a morte do Papa. Da Placar à Veja, e claro na Playboy.
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Seu trabalho autoral inclui 40 anos de incursões na Amazônia, desde o contato com os índios gigantes no começo da década de 70, pauta que cumpriu no mato durante 3 anos pelo O Globo com os irmãos Villas-Bôas. São dele os livros Amazônia o Povo das Matas e Mulheres da Amazônia.
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Hoje se divide entre as tarefas em Carapicuíba, perifa de São Paulo, como ele gosta de dizer, e um barco nos rios da Amazônia onde mora durante as incursões no mato. São essas imagens autorais que Martinelli está expondo na Galeria Portfólio, na Rua Alberto Foloni, 634, próximo ao MON.
Vale a pena conferir.